Topics A to Z

As part of NEHA's continuos effort to provide convenient access to information and resources, we have gathered together for you the links in this section. Our mission is "to advance the environmental health and protection professional for the purpose of providing a healthful environment for all,” as well as to educate and inform those outside the profession.

Article Abstract

Household bleach is typically used as a disinfectant for water in times of emergencies and by those engaging in recreational activities such as camping or rafting. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend a concentration of free chlorine of 1 mg/L for 30 minutes, or about 0.75 mL (1/8 teaspoon) of household bleach per gallon of water. The goal of the study described in this article was to assess two household bleach products to kill waterborne bacteria and viruses using the test procedures in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Guide Standard and Protocol for Testing Microbiological Purifiers. Bleach was found to meet these requirements in waters of low turbidity and organic matter. While the test bacterium was reduced by six logs in high turbid and organic-laden waters, the test viruses were reduced only by one-half to one log. In such waters greater chlorine doses or contact times are needed to achieve greater reduction of viruses. 

May 2014
76.9 | 22-25
Charles P. Gerba, PhD, Sherif Abd Elmaksoud, Nikita Patel, Sherri L. Maxwell
Additional Topics A to Z: Drinking Water

Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) continues to persist in Mississippi; 2012 was the worse year for human infections, with a total of 247 reported human cases and five deaths. Public health officials are keenly interested in ways to detect WNV in advance in their jurisdictions, so they can implement appropriate and timely mosquito control in affected areas. A total of 40,312 female Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were collected by gravid traps in Mississippi in 2013 and 2014 and tested by VectorTest, a rapid immunochromatographic assay (“dip-stick” test) that is a highly specific and effective rapid threat assessment tool. This study evaluated if and to what extent VectorTest could provide advanced warning of impending human WNV cases in a specific area. These data were examined with regard to date of onset of human WNV cases to determine the predictive value of VectorTest for WNV activity. Both years, positive mosquito pools appeared before the vast majority (87.2%) of reported human cases. Overall, in 27 out of 37 human WNV cases (73.0 %) occurring in our study sites, there was an average advanced warning of 26 days (range 11–53 days) as indicated by positive mosquito collections near the patient’s home. This operational health department study, although somewhat limited, reveals that mosquito sampling and testing can inform public health and mosquito control personnel of WNV activity in an area and of impending human cases.

December 2016
December 2016
79.5 | 20-24
Wendy C. Varnado, PhD, Jerome Goddard, PhD

Do you know if food establishments are doing all they caan to reduce the risk of foodborne illness in your community? Does your retail food regulatory program track improvement in food safety practices of foodservice and retail food establishments? Attend this session to obtain an understanding of FDA's current approach to assessing the effectiveness of the nation's retail food protection efforts.

 

Presented at NEHA 2015 AEC

 

July 2015

Abstract

Studies have shown that fecal contamination can be determined by conducting multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) analyses. The hypothesis is if bacteria exhibit resistance, they are likely to be derived from organisms exposed to antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this project seeks to apply MAR analysis to nonpoint source (NPS) and combined sewer overflow (CSO) areas along the Anacostia River in Washington, DC. Presumptive E. coli was isolated from NPS and CSO samples and tested with eight different antimicrobial agents to assess MAR indices. Isolates from CSO sources showed significantly greater resistance (p < .05) and higher MAR indices, with an average MAR index of 0.36 for CSO samples and 0.07 for NPS samples. It was also revealed that 96.9% of CSO isolates exhibited resistance, versus only 43.8% of NPS isolates. Our study on the Anacostia River using this approach clearly shows fecal coliforms are associated with CSO overflows, indicating that pollution-derived coliform levels are strongly linked to antimicrobial resistance. The implementation of this method as an index for water quality in the remediation of the Anacostia River has the ability to serve as a model and monitoring tool for the rehabilitation of urban watersheds.

October 2016
October 2016
79.3 | 36-39
Gaurav Dhiman, Emma N. Burns, David W. Morris, PhD

Public health policy targeting populations at greatest risk can be used to significantly reduce the burden of foodborne disease. This study calculated incidence rates, disability adjusted life years, and quality adjusted life years estimates for salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, adjusted for underreporting. Investigators then looked at how these measures of disease burden can contribute to the policy debate on the public health significance of foodborne disease. Targeting food safety activities through proactive public health policy and by using underreporting estimates of reported cases of foodborne illness may raise the issue of foodborne disease in the policy agenda.

July 2015
Andrew Papadopoulos, PhD, MBA, CPHI
Potential CE Credits: 1.00

This presentation shares the Lakota Sioux experience through the view of a USPHS Team Commander who participated in a Community Health and Service Mission, designed to meet the field-based training needs of emergency response teams. During the session, there will also be a discussion of the partnership between the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS), the Lakota Sioux Tribe, and a non-government organization (Remote Area Medical). Many photos and cultural experiences will be shared to illustrate the mission.

July 2015
Joe Maloney, MPH, REHS/RS
Potential CE Credits: 1.00
Additional Topics A to Z: Hazards

As food safety professionals, we have used traditional observational inspection techniques to evaluate a food operation's procedures and training during inspections. Until now, there has not been a clear method for evaluating the verification component of an operation’s food safety systems. This session will engage you in the discovery of FBI risk factors through the use of new behavioral-based food safety interview tools. You'll compare the snapshot observational approach to the discussion/interview approach. Explore how you can integrate these techniques into your daily inspections.

 

Presented at NEHA 2015 AEC

 

July 2015

This study involved conducting virus monitoring on a set of representative public water supply wells and evaluating the association between source water virus occurrence and community acute gastrointestinal illness incident rates. Find out how the results help predict which sources are most likely to be contaminated and identify critical factors that contribute to the protection of drinking water sources. Come away equipped to use this assessment tool and associated strategies for implementation.

July 2015

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