Topics A to Z

As part of NEHA's continuos effort to provide convenient access to information and resources, we have gathered together for you the links in this section. Our mission is "to advance the environmental health and protection professional for the purpose of providing a healthful environment for all,” as well as to educate and inform those outside the profession.

The Jamaican food safety regulatory framework is embodied in the Public Health Act of 1974 with public health inspectors/environmental health officers (PHIs/EHOs) empowered with its enforcement. The North East Regional Health Authority (NERHA) has consistently faced challenges in achieving national certification targets for food-handling establishments (FHEs). The aim of the authors’ study was to identify and describe noncompliant FHEs and to identify factors influencing their noncompliance. FHEs (N = 248) were randomly selected and each owner/operator targeted for interview. Substantially more FHEs were compliant and respondents from compliant FHEs were more likely to have a valid food handlers’ permit. Urban FHEs were less likely to be compliant than rural. The major barriers to compliance were forgetting to apply for a license and lack of money to correct infractions. NERHA should encourage FHE owners/operators to assume greater responsibility for the certification of their premises and to hold PHIs more accountable.

September 2015
September 2015
78.2 | 20-26
Norbert Campbell, MPH, Jeffericia Johnson, MPH, Henroy Scarlett, MPH, DrPH, Sylvanus Thompson, MSc, PhD

Abstract

Characteristics of an urban setting such as New York City (NYC), including readily available putrescible waste and ample underground infrastructure, make it highly attractive to the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). To identify property and neighborhood characteristics associated with rat presence, recent inspectional results were analyzed from over 77,000 properties in the Bronx and Manhattan. Variables capturing the location and density of factors believed to promote rat populations were tested individually and in combination in models predicting rat activity. We found that property-specific characteristics typically associated with high garbage volume, including large numbers of residential units, public ownership, and open-space designation (parks, outdoor recreation, or vacant land) were the most important factors in explaining increased rat presence across neighborhoods in NYC. Interventions that involved improved garbage management and street sanitation within a designated area reduced the likelihood of finding rats, especially in medium- and high-poverty neighborhoods. Neighborhood characteristics, such as being near a railroad or subway line, having a school nearby, the presence of numerous restaurants, or having older infrastructure, also contributed to the increased likelihood of rats. Our results support the use of built environment data to target community-level interventions and capture emerging rat infestations.

June 2016
June 2016
78.10 | 22-29
Sarah Johnson, MS, MPH, Caroline Bragdon, MPH, Carolyn Olson, MPH, Mario Merlino, MS, MPH

Abstract

In King County, Washington, the most frequently used alternative solvent to perchloroethylene is a hydrotreated petroleum hydrocarbon. The objectives of the authors’ study were to 1) determine the frequency of use of process chemicals used in “hydrocarbon” dry cleaning and gather other operational information; 2) chemically characterize the process chemicals; 3) characterize the still bottoms and separator water wastes according to dangerous waste and wastewater discharge regulations; 4) identify linkages between work practices, process chemicals, and the chemical composition of the waste streams; and 5) evaluate the aquatic toxicity of the hydrocarbon solvent and detergent. Many hydrocarbon dry cleaners are using process chemicals that contain hazardous substances, including trichloroethylene. One sample of separator water contained 13,000 µg/L trichloroethylene. This sample was determined to be federal hazardous waste, state-only dangerous waste (i.e., according to Washington state-specific regulations), and failed wastewater discharge thresholds. All still bottoms were determined to be state-only dangerous wastes. Efforts should be directed towards replacing hazardous spot cleaning chemicals with safer alternatives and ensuring that wastes are disposed of appropriately.

September 2015
78.2 | 8-13
Stephen G. Whittaker, PhD, Jessie Taylor, MS, Linda M. Van Hooser, MS
Additional Topics A to Z: Hazardous Materials

Abstract

Efforts to characterize environmental health workers (EHWs) are needed in order to strengthen the field. Data from the 2014 Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey were used to describe the self-reported roles, important daily work tasks, and skill gaps of EHWs and to compare and contrast these characteristics between state health agencies (SHAs) and local health departments (LHDs). While EHWs at SHAs and LHDs share overall similarities in terms of important daily work tasks and skill gaps, the differences could reflect that the strengths of local-level environmental work fall within communicating and community interaction, whereas state-level strengths reside in administrative, policy, and scientific functions. Our findings also highlight a need for EHWs to strengthen their skills in budget- and policy-related competencies, especially at the local level. We found that number of years in current position was a significant predictor of the number of skill gaps, suggesting the utility of a peer-learning network.

Click here to read the complete article.

 

January 2019
January/February 2019
81.6 | 22-31
Leila Heidari, MPH, de Beaumont Foundation, Theresa Chapple-McGruder, MPH, PhD, de Beaumont Foundation, Sandra Whitehead, PhD, National Environmental Health Association, Brian C. Castrucci, MA, de Beaumont Foundation
Additional Topics A to Z: Workforce Development

The movement and requirements for Green cleaning has sparked innovation in retail food sanitation. New chemical-free cleaning and sanitizing systems are being used in selected food establishments with surprising results. Several of these innovative systems are listed with NSF under new and rigorous Protocols and meet current standards. Several of these extreme Green technologies will be highlighted and contrasted. Attendees will evaluate these solutions against standards and leave with a knowledge of current cleaning innovations.

 

Presented at NEHA 2015 AEC

July 2015

Abstract

Restroom internal door handles have the potential to become contaminated by pathogenic bacteria, particularly because frequent breakdowns occur in hand hygiene. Cleaning these door handles periodically could reduce this cross-contamination risk. The sustained effect following cleaning with chlorhexidine could be beneficial in restroom facilities as cleaning episodes are of necessity at time intervals. The cleaning efficacies and residual effects of Sani Cloth CHG 2% wipes were investigated in a double-blinded randomized crossover controlled trial in a school setting. No significant difference occurred in initial cleaning efficacy; however, following a six-hour period of use by pupils of the restroom facilities, the internal door handles wiped with Sani-Cloth CHG 2% wipes were significantly less contaminated than those with the control wipe (14% v. 32%, p = .02). Cleaning with Sani-Cloth CHG 2% wipes demonstrated significant improvements in the continuous cleanliness of restroom door handles during use with this simple and inexpensive technique.

November 2015
November 2015
78.4 | 14-17
Holly Young, Zara Plumb, James Stevenson, Annabelle Tibbett
Additional Topics A to Z: General Environmental Health

In the Northwest Arctic Borough, the impact of climate on environmental conditions is a fact of life, and with this comes a substantial challenge to the Native Inupiat lifestyle, culture, and traditional subsistence "way of life." Like areas which are being inundated by sea level rise, these changes are affecting drinking water, sanitation and other infrastructure at the "coalface" where these impacts are most evident in the US.  See how environmental health practitioners are providing innovative solutions that promote resilience and adaptation rather than foregoing a cultural and community identity.

July 2015
R. Steven Konkel, PhD

From conception, project design, results, and lessons learned along the way, hear a case study about collaboration between federal, state and local agencies to obtain and use water quality data related to private wells while marketing the use of the data. This case study involves multiple agencies sharing data, data display using geographic information systems (GIS), and unanticipated obstacles. We learned the hard way so you don't have to.

July 2015
Hope Dalton, MPA
Potential CE Credits: 0.50

Abstract

We describe a 2016 community-wide recreational water-associated cryptosporidiosis outbreak investigation and response in Maricopa County, Arizona. Persons with a laboratory-confirmed illness were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire that assessed exposures 2 weeks before symptom onset. A convenience sample of managers and operators of chlorine-treated public aquatic facilities was surveyed regarding permanent supplemental treatment systems for Cryptosporidium. Among 437 cases identified (median age 12, range <1–75 years), 260 persons were interviewed. Public-treated recreational water was the most frequently reported exposure (177, 68%) of interviewed persons; almost 1 in 5 (43, 17%) swam when diarrhea was ongoing.

After the 2016 outbreak, managers of some facilities expressed intentions to install supplementary water treatment systems, and by May 2017, at least one large facility installed an ultraviolet light system. Strategies to prevent additional illness included community messaging, education, and targeted remediation of affected facilities on the basis of interviews. Challenges to remediation during a cryptosporidiosis outbreak in a large jurisdiction with primarily outdoor pools underscore the importance of promoting healthy swimming practices that help prevent contamination from occurring.

 

November 2018
November 2018
81.4 | 14-21
Sally Ann Iverson, MPH, DVM, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Maricopa County Department of Public Health, Nicole Fowle, MPH, LPN, Maricopa County Department of Public Health, Gregory Epperson, RS, Maricopa County Environmental Services Department, Jennifer Collins, MPH, Maricopa County Department of Public Health
Additional Topics A to Z: Recreational Waters

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